-Tombs in Three Kingdoms-
( 1) Koguryo:
1. The walls and ceilings of the tomb-chambers in many Koguryo tombs were de-corated with colorful paintings and the floors were paved with tile-bricks carved with Buddhist images such as lotus flowers or grotesque animal faces. (image)
2. Foreign invaders have stolen the treasures, only mural paintings were left. The paintings often represent the heavenly god, sun, moon, the north star, blue dragon, red phoenix, and guardian deities, etc.
3. The paintings also include the scenes of processions of court beauties in scenes of flowing costumes, banquet, dances, wrestling, hunting, and ox-carts. These scenes from tomb murals reveal many details of elite lives, and depict common people, as servants and entertainers. Clothing, architecture and activities depicted enrich the view of the Koguryo Kingdom.
4. A dance performed by-two women in yellow skirts and two women in red skirts in pairs were most popular. The musical instruments originated in Koguryo were play-ed with great admiration in Sui and Tang, China, and the four-woman dance was introduced to Japan.
1. The royal tombs were mostly earthen mounds, and the tomb-chambers were decorated with stones or bricks. (image) Granite was widely used as building materials for palaces, pagodas and temples.
2. Buddhist images such as the gold and bronze-gilt stan-ding Buddha and seated Buddha are most artistic, and on tiles and bricks were inlaid designs of lotus flowers, clouds, phoenix, dragons, gods, and goddesses.
3. Bead necklace, gold earrings, and other ornaments of precious stones were found in the tomb chambers. These superior arts were introduced to Silla and Japan. For example, the Paekje architect, Abiji, erected the Nine-Story Pagoda in. Hwangnyong-sa in Silla, and Prince Ajwa visited Japan and drew the portrait of the Japanese crown prince, Shotoku Taishi. The sculptures of Paekje are also found now in the Horyuji Temple in Nara, Japan.
1. Most royal tombs were hill-like earthen mounds. The tombs were covered with arched stones and clay, roofed by a huge, grassy, earthen mound. Further down the mound are wooden-lined chambers with the inner mounds with stone.
2. Inside the tomb-chambers were found the royal dead and personal regalia with gold and silver crowns, finger rings, earrings, bracelets, necklaces, girdle pendants, and gilt iron shoes in the coffins.
3. Several gold crowns were found from Silla royal tombs. The one from Phoenix Hill or the Gold Crown Tomb (Kumgwanchong) has a gold brim, ornamented with 13 gold branches and leaves, studded with 57 pendants of nephrite beads, both in splendid form and fine workmanship. Other similar one from Heavenly Horse Tomb has three shaped uprights in the front and sides and two antler shaped uprights in the rear. Such crowns are similar to Siberian shaman caps indicating a possible Siberian origin. The carv-ings on the earrings however, are rather similar to those in ancient Greece, not those of China.
Primitive Beliefs and Legends
The ancient people of Koguryo worshipped heavenly bodies and nature. It showed in the murals of old tomb-chambers, where they drew pictures of heavenly men, sun, moon, northern star (the Great Bear), blue dragon, white tiger, black turtle, and red phoenix, four gods, fairies, mountains, all are symbols of polytheism.
They believed in the immortality of the soul, and buried the dead in large coffins and large tombs with rich personal ornaments. For this reason, they believed witches uttered words of the spirits. In this way shamanism was in great vogue and the witchcraft has descended from ancient Koguryo to the present day Korea.
They also believed that their royal ancestor, Ko Chumong (the great bowman and founder of the kingdom) was born of Yu Hwa(Willow Flower). They called Yu Hwa the goddess of Puyo (origin of Koguryo) and her son, Chumong, the high ascending god, offering sacrifices to their shrines in four seasons.
Paekche also worshipped the gods of nature and the shrines
dedicated to Yu Hwa and her son Chumong as the guardian
deities of the nation, for Paekje was founded by Onjo, a
son of Chumong.
Silla people also believed Pakhyukose, the founder of the kingdom, was born of a gourd; Sok Talhae, the fourth sovereign, was born of an egg; Kim Alji, the ancestor of King Michoo (13th sovereign) was found inside a golden box beneath a crowing cock in Kerim (Cock's Forest). Unified Silla
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